Symphony , a lengthy form of musical composition for orchestra , normally consisting of several large sections, or movements , at least one of which usually employs sonata form also called first-movement form. Symphonies in this sense began to be composed during the so-called Classical period in European music history, about — The early part of this period and the decade immediately preceding it are sometimes called pre-Classical, as are the symphonies written before about During the 19th century, which included the Romantic period , symphonies grew longer, and composers concerned themselves with ways of unifying the movements; extramusical programs and new approaches toward tonality the major-minor system of chord progressions were among the solutions to the problems of large-scale symphonic form. Late in the century, symphonies—and orchestras—had grown to such an extent that reaction set in, culminating in the Neoclassical movement of the early 20th century, in which composers turned again toward principles of balance and formal discipline , using new techniques to achieve dynamic coherence.
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Byzantine art , architecture , paintings , and other visual arts produced in the Middle Ages in the Byzantine Empire centred at Constantinople and in various areas that came under its influence. The pictorial and architectural styles that characterized Byzantine art, first codified in the 6th century, persisted with remarkable homogeneity within the empire until its final dissolution with the capture of Constantinople by the Turks in A brief treatment of Byzantine art follows. For a treatment of Byzantine painting , see Western painting: Eastern Christian. Byzantine art is almost entirely concerned with religious expression and, more specifically, with the impersonal translation of carefully controlled church theology into artistic terms. Its forms of architecture and painting grew out of these concerns and remained uniform and anonymous, perfected within a rigid tradition rather than varied according to personal whim. The result was a sophistication of style and a spirituality of expression rarely paralleled in Western art.
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Indian art consists of a variety of art forms, including painting , sculpture , pottery , and textile arts such as woven silk. A strong sense of design is characteristic of Indian art and can be observed in its modern and traditional forms. The origin of Indian art can be traced to prehistoric settlements in the 3rd millennium BC.
As paper became more affordable, paper-cutting became one of the most important types of Chinese folk art. Later, this art form spread to other parts of the world, with different regions adopting their own cultural styles. People glued the papercuts to the exterior of windows, so the light from the inside would shine through the negative space of the cutout.